Diabetes is a chronic condition in which the body doesn’t produce enough insulin. Insulin is a hormone that helps to convert food into energy. Without enough insulin, the body can’t use the food it eats to survive, and begins to store the food as fat. Over time, this can lead to serious health problems such as heart disease, blindness, and even death. In this article, we’ll explore what causes diabetes, and discuss some of the warning signs that you may be at risk.
Definition of Type 2 Diabetes
Type 2 diabetes is a metabolic disorder that occurs when the body cannot properly use blood sugar (glucose) for energy. People with type 2 diabetes may have difficulty regulating their blood sugar levels and may experience episodes of high blood sugar levels called hyperglycemia. These episodes can lead to damage in the pancreas, which can cause serious health problems, including blindness, kidney failure, and heart disease. Type 2 diabetes is more common than type 1 diabetes, but it usually develops over a longer period of time. Symptoms of type 2 diabetes vary depending on which organs are affected by the disorder.
Types of Diabetes
There are three main types of diabetes mellitus, which are: Type 1, Type 2, and gestational diabetes. Each type is caused by a different set of genetic factors and can present in a variety of ways.
Type 1 diabetes is the most common form of diabetes, accounting for around 90% of all cases. This type is usually diagnosed in childhood or early adulthood, and is associated with an autoimmune response that destroys the insulin-producing cells in the pancreas. People with type 1 diabetes need to regularly administer insulin to control their blood sugar levels.
Type 2 diabetes is less common than type 1 diabetes, but it accounts for around 10% of all cases. It’s typically diagnosed in middle age or later life, and is associated with an increased risk of heart disease, stroke, and other serious health conditions. People with type 2 diabetes often struggle to regulate their blood sugar levels on their own and require medication and/or diet changes to manage them.
Gestational diabetes occurs during pregnancy and can be a sign that a woman has prediabetes or full-blown diabetes. The condition usually goes away after the baby is born, but it can occasionally lead to long-term complications such as high blood pressure or heart disease.
What are the Symptoms of Type 2 Diabetes?
Type 2 diabetes is a condition where the body can’t make enough insulin, a hormone that helps move glucose (sugar) from the blood into cells. As a result, blood sugar levels become elevated and can damage tissues and organs over time.
The most common symptoms of type 2 diabetes include:
- Increased thirst
- Extreme hunger
- Unusually large appetite (anorexia) or unexplained weight loss
- frequent urination or excessive thirst
- blurred vision or vision changes
- rapid heart rate or dizziness
- tingling in the hands or feet
How is Type 2 Diabetes Diagnosed?
Type 2 diabetes is diagnosed when blood sugar levels are higher than normal, but not high enough to be classified as type 1 diabetes. The main difference between the two types of diabetes is that in type 1 diabetes, the body’s immune system destroys cells that produce insulin, a hormone that helps the body use glucose from food. In type 2 diabetes, the body’s cells become resistant to insulin and cannot properly use glucose from food or drink.
There are several ways to measure blood sugar levels. A fasting blood sugar test measures how much sugar is in a person’s blood after they have not eaten for 12 hours. A glucose tolerance test measures how well a person responds to eating a meal after having had their blood sugar level taken before and then again an hour later. A hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) test measures how long it has been since the average level of hemoglobin in a person’s blood was changed by eating or drinking.
If you have symptoms of type 2 diabetes, your doctor may order additional tests to confirm the diagnosis. These tests include an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), which measures how well your body handles sugar after you eat; an exercise testing; and urinalysis, which looks for signs of kidney damage caused by high blood sugar levels.
Treatment Options for Type 2 Diabetes
There are many treatment options for type 2 diabetes, each with its own benefits and drawbacks. Some people find that diet and exercise are the most effective forms of treatment, while others may require medication to manage their blood sugar levels. Here is a brief overview of some of the most common treatments for type 2 diabetes.
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Diet and Exercise
The best way to treat type 2 diabetes is to improve your diet and exercise habits. A healthy diet can help lower blood sugar levels, while regular exercise can help reduce insulin resistance and improve overall health. However, diet and exercise alone are not always enough to control diabetes. In some cases, people may need medications to help regulate blood sugar levels.
There are several types of medications available to treat type 2 diabetes. Some people find that they respond well to oral medications such as metformin or sulfonylureas, while others require insulin injections or artificial pancreas devices to manage their blood sugar levels effectively. It is important to discuss your individual treatment options with a doctor before starting any new medication regimen.
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